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# Take

Select leading or trailing items from a list or dictionary, named entries from a dictionary, or named columns from a table

Syntax: x#y, #[x;y]

Where

  • x is an int atom or vector, or a table
  • y is an atom, list, dictionary, table, or keyed table

Returns y as a list, dictionary or table described or selected by x.

Atom or list

Where x is an int atom, and y is an atom or list, returns a list of length x filled from y, starting at the front if x is positive and the end if negative.

q)5#0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8      /take the first 5 items
0 1 2 3 4
q)-5#0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     /take the last 5 items
4 5 6 7 8

If x>count y, y is treated as circular.

q)5#`Arthur`Steve`Dennis
`Arthur`Steve`Dennis`Arthur`Steve
q)-5#`Arthur`Steve`Dennis
`Steve`Dennis`Arthur`Steve`Dennis
q)3#9
9 9 9
q)2#`a
`a`a

If x is 0, an empty list is returned.

q)trade:([]time:();sym:();price:();size:())  /columns can hold anything
q)trade
+`time`sym`price`size!(();();();())
q)/idiomatic way to initialise columns to appropriate types
q)trade:([]time:0#0Nt;sym:0#`;price:0#0n;size:0#0N)
q)trade
+`time`sym`price`size!(`time$();`symbol$();`float$();`int$())

Where x is a vector, returns a matrix or higher-dimensional array; count x gives the number of dimensions. (Since V2.3)

q)2 5#"!"
"!!!!!"
"!!!!!"
q)2 3#til 6
(0 1 2;3 4 5)

A 2×4 matrix taken from the list `Arthur`Steve`Dennis

q)2 4#`Arthur`Steve`Dennis
Arthur Steve  Dennis Arthur
Steve  Dennis Arthur Steve

Higher dimensions are not always easy to see.

q)2 3 4#"a"
"aaaa" "aaaa" "aaaa"
"aaaa" "aaaa" "aaaa"
q)show five3d:2 3 4#til 5
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1
2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3
q)count each five3d
3 3
q)first five3d
0 1 2 3
4 0 1 2
3 4 0 1

A null in x will cause that dimension to be maximal.

q)0N 3#til 10
0 1 2
3 4 5
6 7 8
,9

Changes since V3.3

From V3.4, if x is a list of length 1, the result has a single dimension.

q)enlist[2]#til 10
0 1

From V3.4, x can have length greater than 2 – but may not contain nulls.

q)(2 2 3#til 5)~((0 1 2;3 4 0);(1 2 3;4 0 1))
1b
q)(enlist("";""))~1 2 0#"a"
1b
q)all`domain=@[;1 2;{`$x}]each(#)@'(1 0 2;2 3 0N;0N 2 1;-1 2 3)
1b

The effect of nulls in x changed in V3.3.

Prior to V3.3:

q)3 0N # til 10
(0 1 2 3;4 5 6 7;8 9)
q)(10 0N)#(),10
10
q)4 0N#til 9
0 1 2
3 4 5
6 7 8

From V3.3:

q)3 0N#til 10
0 1 2
3 4 5
6 7 8 9
q)2 0N#0#0



q)(10 0N)#(),10
`long$()
`long$()
`long$()
`long$()
`long$()
`long$()
`long$()
`long$()
`long$()
,10
q)4 0N#til 9
0 1
2 3
4 5
6 7 8

Dictionary

Where

  • x is an int atom or vector
  • y is a dictionary

returns x entries from y.

q)d:`a`b`c!1 2 3
q)2#d
a| 1
b| 2

Where

  • x is a symbol atom or vector
  • y is a dictionary

returns from y entries for x.

q)d:`a`b`c!1 2 3
q)`a`b#d
a| 1
b| 2

Table

Where

  • x is an int atom
  • y is a table

returns x rows from y.

q)\l sp.q
..
q)5#sp
s  p  qty
---------
s1 p1 300
s1 p2 200
s1 p3 400
s1 p4 200
s4 p5 100

Where

  • x is a symbol atom or vector
  • y is a table

returns column/s x from y.

q)`p`qty#sp
p  qty
------
p1 300
p2 200
p3 400
p4 200
p5 100
p6 100
p1 300
p2 400
p2 200
p2 200
p4 300
p5 400

Keyed table

Where

  • x is a table
  • y is a keyed table
  • columns of x are keys of y

returns matching rows, together with the respective keys. This is similar to retrieving multiple records through the square brackets syntax, except Take also returns the keys.

q)([]s:`s1`s2)#s
s | name  status city  
--| -------------------
s1| smith 20     london
s2| jones 10     paris 

Q for Mortals: §8.4.5 Retrieving Multiple Records